Causes of Anal Fissure

Anal fissures, also known as rectal fissures, are painful tears or cracks in the lining of the anal canal. Several factors can contribute to the development of anal fissures:

  1. Constipation: One of the primary causes of anal fissures is chronic constipation. When stool becomes hard and difficult to pass, it can exert excessive pressure on the anal canal, leading to the formation of fissures.

  2. Straining during Bowel Movements: Straining during bowel movements, often due to constipation or the need to pass hard stools, can put significant pressure on the anal canal. This pressure can cause the delicate lining to tear and result in anal fissures.

  3. Diarrhea: While constipation is a common cause, diarrhea can also contribute to the development of anal fissures. Frequent episodes of loose stools can irritate the anal canal, making it more susceptible to tears and fissures.

  4. Anal Trauma: Certain activities or conditions that cause trauma to the anal area can lead to anal fissures. These include anal intercourse, insertion of foreign objects, or childbirth.

  5. Anal Stricture: An anal stricture refers to a narrowing of the anal canal. This can result from various conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, infections, or scarring. The stricture can create friction and pressure during bowel movements, increasing the likelihood of developing anal fissures.

  6. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis can cause inflammation and ulceration in the anal canal, making it more prone to fissures.

  7. Poor Hygiene: Inadequate anal hygiene, such as excessive wiping or using harsh toilet paper, can irritate the anal area and contribute to the development of anal fissures.

  8. Spasms of the Anal Sphincter: Spasms or tightness in the muscles of the anal sphincter can impair blood flow to the anal area. Reduced blood flow hinders the healing process of any existing fissures, making them persist or recur.

It is important to note that individual cases may vary, and multiple factors can contribute to the development of anal fissures. If you are experiencing symptoms or suspect you have an anal fissure, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

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